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The Beginnings of Political Economy


The Beginnings of Political Economy

Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi
The European Heritage in Economics and the Social Sciences, Band 7

von: Jürgen Backhaus

154,69 €

Verlag: Springer
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 13.11.2008
ISBN/EAN: 9780387097794
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 248

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Beschreibungen

Ju¨ rgen G. Backhaus 1 Johann Heinrich Gottlob (von) Justi was born in 1702 in Bru¨ cken in Prussia (county of Sangerhausen), studied law and cameral sciences in Wittenberg and Jena, yet had to leave the university, entered the Prussian military service, was captured during the Austrian war of succession by the Austrians but escaped to Leipzig (Saxony) where he studied mineral sciences. In 1750 he was called to a chair ‘‘Cameral Sciences and Rhetorics’’ at the new Theresian Academy of Knights in Vienna. There, he gave two important inaugural lectures which are the focal point of this book. In 1754, Justi was appointed a mineral counsellor in Gottingen ¨ (Hanover), and lectured at the Saxonian University on both state sciences and natural sciences. In 1762, Frederic II (the Great) of Prussia appointed him Prussian captain (highest supervisory position) of mines and general supervisor of fiscal-mineral activities. In 1768 he was accused of embezzlement, and before he could prove his innocence, he died in 1771 as a prisoner in the (decaying) fortress of Ku¨ strin. Due to his death, the case was never decided. But Frederic had obviously made his own decision. When he appointed Justi, the appointee pointed out that he was suffering from weak eye sight and could not readily check the bookkeeping. Frederic replied: You may have weak eyes but you have a bright mind. I shall put two eyes by your side.
These eleven essays on Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi's concepts of the modern economy reflect both his life and professional work. They focus on his ideas on economics and social sciences. The aspects of his biography that led to the development of his economic thought make for fascinating reading.
Ju¨ rgen G. Backhaus 1 Johann Heinrich Gottlob (von) Justi was born in 1702 in Bru¨ cken in Prussia (county of Sangerhausen), studied law and cameral sciences in Wittenberg and Jena, yet had to leave the university, entered the Prussian military service, was captured during the Austrian war of succession by the Austrians but escaped to Leipzig (Saxony) where he studied mineral sciences. In 1750 he was called to a chair ‘‘Cameral Sciences and Rhetorics’’ at the new Theresian Academy of Knights in Vienna. There, he gave two important inaugural lectures which are the focal point of this book. In 1754, Justi was appointed a mineral counsellor in Gottingen ¨ (Hanover), and lectured at the Saxonian University on both state sciences and natural sciences. In 1762, Frederic II (the Great) of Prussia appointed him Prussian captain (highest supervisory position) of mines and general supervisor of fiscal-mineral activities. In 1768 he was accused of embezzlement, and before he could prove his innocence, he died in 1771 as a prisoner in the (decaying) fortress of Ku¨ strin. Due to his death, the case was never decided. But Frederic had obviously made his own decision. When he appointed Justi, the appointee pointed out that he was suffering from weak eye sight and could not readily check the bookkeeping. Frederic replied: You may have weak eyes but you have a bright mind. I shall put two eyes by your side.
From Wolff to Justi.- A Bibliography of J.H.G. von Justi.- Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi - The Life and Times of an Economist Adventurer.- Justi and the Post-Montesquieu French Debate on Commercial Nobility in 1756.- The International Aspects of Justi’s Work.- Justi and Japan.- Justi’s Concept of Moral Economics and the Good Society.- Cameralism and Labour in von Justi’s Economic Thinking.- J.H.G. Justi in Austria: His Writings in the Context of Economic and Industrial Policies of the Habsburg Empire in the 18th Century.- Justi’s Concept of Taxation.- Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi (1717-1771): Health as Part of a State’s Capital Endowment.
This volume contains eleven essays on Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi's concepts of the modern economy. These essays reflect both Justi's life and professional work, focusing on his ideas on economics and social sciences. Interesting are the aspects of his biography that gave rise to the development of his economic thought. Apart from Justi's personal background, this book contains the beginning of modern economics because Justi's philosophy was linked to government, labour, morality, health and finally the good society.
Justi, throughout his life, had a dual career of being on the one hand a prolific writer and educator, on the other hand an administrator in the core state business of mining, then an important revenue source, and he typically combined the two. He gave two inaugural lectures in 1750 in front of Queen and Empress Maria Theresia. The lecture on cameral sciences is truly the beginning of modern economics: Justi was of the opinion that the happiness of the state would be increased if the number of happy and healthy persons would increase. For this reason, health was a major focus of his attention long before the advent of health economics.
The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is an understanding of how economics developed as a separate science. Furthermore, they will see how Justi laid the foundation for policy sciences, the specialty of many schools of governement today.
Biography of Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi
Focuses on both his personal life and economic philosophy, and how one gave rise to the other
Underlines the development of economics as a separate science
Ten authors document Justi's thoughts on a range of issues including moral and health economics, taxation, and the good society

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